Friday, March 20, 2020

The Difference Between Control Group and Experimental Group

The Difference Between Control Group and Experimental Group In an experiment, data from an experimental group is compared with data from a control group. These two groups should be identical in every respect except one: The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the independent variable is changed for the experimental group, but is held constant in the control group. Key Takeaways: Control vs. Experimental Group The control group and experimental group are compared against each other in an experiment. The only difference between the two groups is that the independent variable is changed in the experimental group. The independent variable is controlled or held constant in the control group.A single experiment may include multiple experimental groups, which may all be compared against the control group.The purpose of having a control is to rule out other factors which may influence the results of an experiment. Not all experiments include a control group, but those that do are called controlled experiments.A placebo may also be used in an experiment. A placebo isnt a substitute for a control group because subjects exposed to a placebo may experience effects from the belief they are being tested. What Are Groups in Experiment Design? An experimental group is the group that receives an experimental procedure or a test sample. This group is exposed to changes in the independent variable being tested. The values of the independent variable and the result on the dependent variable are recorded. An experiment may include multiple experimental groups at one time. A control group is a group separated from the rest of the experiment such that the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variables effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternative explanations of the experimental results. While all experiments have an experimental group, not all experiments require a control group. Controls are extremely useful where the experimental conditions are complex and difficult to isolate. Experiments that use control groups are called controlled experiments. A Simple Example of a Controlled Experiment A simple example of a controlled experiment may be used to determine whether or not plants need to be watered to live. The control group would be plants that are not watered. The experimental group would consist of plants that receive water. A clever scientist would wonder whether too much watering might kill the plants and would set up several experimental groups, each receiving a different amount of water. Sometimes setting up a controlled experiment can be confusing. For example, a scientist may wonder whether or not a species of bacteria needs oxygen in order to live. To test this, cultures of bacteria may be left in the air, while other cultures are placed in a sealed container of nitrogen (the most common component of air) or deoxygenated air (which likely contained extra carbon dioxide). Which container is the control? Which is the experimental group? Control Groups and Placebos The most common type of control group is one held at ordinary conditions so it doesnt experience a changing variable. For example, If you want to explore the effect of salt on plant growth, the control group would be a set of plants not exposed to salt, while the experimental group would receive the salt treatment. If you want to test whether the duration of light exposure affects fish reproduction, the control group would be exposed to a normal number of hours of light, while the duration would change for the experimental group. Experiments involving human subjects can be much more complex. If youre testing whether a drug is effective or not, for example, members of a control group may expect they will not unaffected. To prevent skewing the results, a placebo may be used. A placebo is a substance that doesnt contain an active therapeutic agent. If a control group takes a placebo, participants dont know whether they are being treated or not, so they have the same expectations as members of the experimental group. However, there is also the placebo effect to consider. Here, the recipient of the placebo experiences an effect or improvement because she believes there should be an effect. Another concern with a placebo is that its not always easy to formulate one that truly free of active ingredients. For example, if a sugar pill is given as a placebo, theres a chance the sugar will affect the outcome of the experiment. Positive and Negative Controls Positive and negative controls are two other types of control groups: Positive control groups are control groups in which the conditions guarantee a positive result. Positive control groups are effective to show the experiment is functioning as planned.Negative control groups are control groups in which conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not unaccounted for, such as contaminants. Sources Bailey, R. A. (2008). Design of Comparative Experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9.Chaplin, S. (2006). The placebo response: an important part of treatment. Prescriber: 16–22. doi:10.1002/psb.344Hinkelmann, Klaus; Kempthorne, Oscar (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Author, Sociologist, and Activist W.E.B. Du Bois

Author, Sociologist, and Activist W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At the time, Du Bois’s family was one of the few black families living in the predominantly Anglo-American town. While in high school, Du Bois showed a big concern for the development of his race. At fifteen years of age, he became the local correspondent for the New York Globe and gave lectures and wrote editorials spreading his ideas that black people needed to politicize themselves. Fast Facts: W.E.B. Du Bois Full Name: William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B. for short) Du BoisBorn: February 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, MADied: August 27, 1963Education: Bachelors from Fisk University and Harvard University, Masters from Harvard. First Black to earn a doctorate degree at Harvard.Known For: Editor, writer, and political activist. As the first person to use a scientific approach to study social phenomenon, Du Bois is often called the Father of Social Science.Key Accomplishments: Played a leading role in the struggle for black civil rights in the United States. Founded and led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.Publications: The Philadelphia Negro (1896), Souls of Black Folks (1903), The Negro (1915), The Gift of Black Folk (1924), Black Reconstruction (1935), The Color of Democracy (1945) Education In 1888, Du Bois earned a degree from Fisk University in Nashville Tennessee. During his three years there, Du Bois’ knowledge of the race problem became more definite and he became determined to help expedite the emancipation of black people. After graduating from Fisk, he entered Harvard on scholarships. He earned his bachelor’s degree in 1890 and immediately began working towards his master’s and doctorate degree. In 1895, Du Bois became the first African-American to earn a doctorate degree at Harvard University. Career and Later Life After graduating from Harvard, Du Bois took a teaching job at Wilberforce University in Ohio. Two years later he accepted a fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania to conduct a research project in Philadelphia’s seventh ward slums, which allowed him to study blacks as a social system. He was determined to learn as much as he could in an attempt to find the â€Å"cure† for prejudice and discrimination. His investigation, statistical measurements, and sociological interpretation of this endeavor was published as The Philadelphia Negro. This was the first time such a scientific approach to studying social phenomenon was undertaken, which is why Du Bois is often called the Father of Social Science. Du Bois then accepted a teaching position at Atlanta University. He was there for thirteen years during which he studied and wrote about morality, urbanization, business and education, the church, and crime as it affected Black society. His main goal was to encourage and help social reform. Du Bois became a very prominent intellectual leader and civil rights activist, earning the label â€Å"The Father of Pan-Africanism.† In 1909, Du Bois and other like-minded supporters founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1910, he left Atlanta University to work full-time as the Publications Director at the NAACP. For 25 years, Du Bois served as the editor-in-chief of the NAACP publication The Crisis. By the 1930s, the NAACP had become increasingly institutionalized while Du Bois had become more radical, which led to disagreements between Du Bois and some of the other leaders. In 1934 he left the magazine and returned to teaching at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of a number of African-American leaders investigated by the FBI, which claimed that in 1942 his writings indicated him to be a socialist. At the time Du Bois was chairman of the Peace Information Center and was one of the signers of the Stockholm Peace Pledge, which opposed the use of nuclear weapons. In 1961, Du Bois moved to Ghana as an expatriate from the United States and joined the Communist Party. In the final months of his life, he renounced his American citizenship and become a citizen of Ghana.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Present-Day Egyptian Culture Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Present-Day Egyptian Culture - Research Paper Example Agricultural practices have emancipated in Egypt since five thousand years and due to this the Egyptian community is considered to be highly deep rooted. Maximum level of cooperation can be observed in the Egyptian community and they have a central government that deals with regulating all types of issues amongst the community. The Egyptians take special care of their community members and assist all members who need help and assistance (Fahmy, 10). Egyptian people at the major level belong to the Eastern Hamitic Stock. There are four cultural groups present in Egypt. They are Egyptian peasants, the Copt, Nubians, and lastly the Bedouins. Each culture practices its own way of living and have different lifestyles. All cultures easily accommodate with others and this way harmony prevails in major regions of Egypt (Lane, 13). Egypt’s geographical position allowed them to be in link with the surrounding regions and hence they developed and adopted multitude types of cultures and experiences (Fahmy, 4). Values and principles of Egypt have emerged from the various religions worldwide. The main source of heritage in the cultural and intellectual areas in Egypt is the religion of the country. Egyptian Arabic is the main language of Egypt. French is understood by majority of the erudite classes in Egypt. French is usually taught as a second language in most of the schools and universities in Egypt (Fahmy, 6). Berber language is spoken in Siwa region of Egypt. As discussed above, there are four types of cultural groups present and due to the different practices, the languages spoken in some regions are different from the national language of Egypt. The Egyptians follow the religion Islam and this religion plays a vital role in the Egyptian society. All decisions in the country whether they are economic or political, personal or social are based upon the Islamic principles and practices (Lane, 69). The individuals in Egypt act as

Monday, February 3, 2020

Becoming a soccer fan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Becoming a soccer fan - Essay Example My team members and I were the main characters. The time of event was in my 4th grade days. i. Background and Setting This is where I introduce my thesis statement. I shall introduce how the whole story, which centers on how the impact of my role model and a victory in a street soccer competition started. BODY This part of the essay unfurls the main events that happened in the essay. In this case, the essay is a flashback narration of a particular moment of my life. The brief of the story is the victory my soccer team won in a street soccer competition and how I related the victory to the story of my role model and ever since developed strong passion for soccer with anticipation to becoming like my role model on day. I have divided the body of the essay into three sub-sections as detailed below ii. The Story of my Role Model I shall present how I was fortunate to tune in to a TV station one day to see my role model being interviewed and the story he shared in the interview. iii. Prep aration for the Competition I shall talk about a hitch that hit the team in the midst of our preparation. The strange replacement for our captain who was me. iv. The competition and Victory I shall talk about how the competition got under way. How my team surprisingly took the first position, wining the cup. The shock of my life when I was named the best player in the tournament. CONCLUSION The conclusion seeks to summarize the essay and talks about the changes that the entire experience of the street soccer brought on my life. There were lessons I learnt and all these have been factored in the conclusion. The lessons make the essay worth narrating to someone. v. Reflection on the Victory to the story of my Role Model I shall talk about how I came out of the competition, reflecting on the story I heard from my role model and the hope it gave me for the future vi. The changes my experience brought me This will be the concluding part of the essay, talking about the new lifestyle I ado pted after the competition. Planning the Essay INTRODUCTION – ? page i. Background and Setting This is where I introduce my thesis statement. Stories of our role models can have a great impact on our lives and change our way of life forever. I shall introduce how the whole story, which centers on how the impact of my role model and a victory in a street soccer competition started. Soccer had been my favorite game right from childhood. This should perhaps be because soccer was the first game I was introduced to. I grew up in a house where everyone loved soccer. My dad was so passionate about soccer that he would never miss a live soccer game on television for any other thing: especially when his favorite team, Manchester United was playing. My mum even tells me of how my father nearly lost his job because of soccer. She said my daddy once kept postponing working on some files he brought home on a weekend because he had a series of live matches to watch on TV. Even my mother wa s influenced to love soccer because she had to keep my father company whenever he sat behind the television to watch what he enjoyed most. For my elderly brothers, they had no other choice than to join community soccer teams. So when I ended up playing a justifier match for a local team, at 4th grade, it was not surprising. BODY – 3 pages ii. The Story of my Role Model – 1 page I shall present how I was fortunate to tune in to a TV station one day to see my role model being

Sunday, January 26, 2020

An Analysis Of Dominos Pizza

An Analysis Of Dominos Pizza Macro and micro environment Analysis: Downturn in national or world economies and rising of inflation which is being experienced current period, are the most common factors that can affect businesses. Conversely, what cause an adverse effect for many companies, has had a constructive effect for Dominos Pizza UK, Ireland, the most leading delievery franchise. Keeping in view the current economic situation Dominos Pizza sales had increased up to 11% in the first six week of 2008 than that of same period of last year, due to, mostly people preferred for delivery at home, instead of going for eat outs, Like-for-like sales rose 14.7% last year, despite a price rise across Dominos menu last autumn. (The Times, 20th February 2008) According to Cheif Executive, The Chris Moore, The results are proof that our price point is resilient in these economic times and that we are benefiting from the downturn in the restaurant sector. Instead of eating out three or four times a week, we are seeing real signs that [people] have cut that to once or twice. They are filling up that gap with pizza instead. (The Times, 20 February 2008) His comments came soon after the company announced plans to move up to the main market in order to obtain funds it has been unable to attract in the nine years it has spent on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM). Dominos shares have climbed 14-fold since the company floated in November 1999 and the group now has 501 sites across the UK and Ireland, with plans to open 50 more this year. Its aim is to have 1,000 by 2017. (The Times, 20th February 2008). Dominos said, sales had been enhanced, due to these new pizzas, like wise, Meateor and the rugby-themed Scrummy, and by offering new ways of ordering, like wise e-commerce salesorders taken electronically either online or through text messages, due to which sales have been intensified to 60.5%. According to Dominos prediction, the drift for ordering-in food would continue this year. At present the external environment shifting rapidly. The external environment consists of everything outside the business. Even in the present critical economical situation, dominos continues to succeed which is due to dominos remorseless emphasis on the quality of dominos pizzas, penetrating commitment to service and by publicizing to dominos customers to whenever and wherever they are willing to order. It is their frevency that has brought profit growth of 27.8% to  £29.9m (2008:  £23.4m) and that will persists to get-up-and-go dominos business in years to come. PEST ( Political, Economic, Social and Technological) i. POLITICAL ISSUES: Political issues include regulatory frame work operating in judicial system which may distress the business in diverse ways. In UK, there isnt as such factors that might embrace dominos business. While factors like, laws on business employment, pollution and taxation apply on the organization which it should follow according to rules. ii. ECONOMIC FACTORS: If the countys economy is better so the GDP of the country will be good, it is the initiative for business as the per capita income increases people will spend more money. According to dominos survey, it came to know that mostly people spend more and visit more often, during or start in on of months. Moreover, rise in inflation rate, leads to increment of cost of raw material which also leads towards higher prices for goods and vice versa iii. SOCIAL FACTORS: Dominos is a multinational and it is basically inaugurated from America, therefore, the organization is snowed under by dominos western culture. There are different social forms of society which consists of, upper class, middle class, middle upper class, and lower class. Moreover, every single nation, state has their own cultural norms, beliefs, religion, values which might affect the organization world wide. iv. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS: At the present time, technology is improving, so as baking and heating ovens will be of new and efficient technology and will provide efficient service. Due to these innovative technology there are many latest ways of publicizing like wise, through internet; telemarketing through which organization can advertise their products in much more rapidly than ever before. Computer based customer data that is MIS (managing information system) helps in collecting customer data, daily transactions, future forecasting and decision making. New vehicles will make their service more efficient. Briefly discuss the industry of sector The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, can be considered outside of the scope of the modern food industry. The food industry includes: Regulation: local, regional, national and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality and food safety, and industry lobbying activities Education: academic, vocational, consultancy Research and development: food technology Financial services insurance, credit Manufacturing: agrichemicals, seed, farm machinery and supplies, agricultural construction, etc. Agriculture: raising of crops and livestock, seafood Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products Marketing: promotion of generic products (e.g. milk board), new products, public opinion, through advertising, packaging, public relations, etc. Wholesale and distribution: warehousing, transportation, logistics These subtle technologies ascertain prevailing food production. Which encompasses numerious areas, including, Agricultural machinery, originally led by the tractor, has practically eliminated human labor in many areas of production. Biotechnology is driving much change, in areas as diverse as agrochemicals, plant breeding and food processing. Many other areas of technology are also involved, to the point where it is hard to find an area that does not have a direct impact on the food industry. Computer technology is also a central force, with computer networks and specialized software providing the support infrastructure to allow global movement of the myriad components involved. Key success factors The critical success factors are related to dominos broad areas, customers preference for pizza as a food item. Its ability to prepare a pizza within a short time, to deliver it within 30 minutes of recording the order, and the store location. Since Dominos business model is based on home delivery, the speed of preparing the pizza and delivering it are the critical success factors. International strategies (Competitive analysis) SWOT Analysis: Every organization has its own strengths and weaknesses as well as threats and opportunities, As far as dominos swot is concerned its swot analysis is as under. Strengths: Currently Dominos is the market leader in providing wide range of pizzas, in a manner that there are no competitor in this sector. There admireble image has made the organization more worthfull. Moreover, Dominos is render pleasing taste, quality products with qualified staff, splendid ambience and hygienic surroundings. They are specialized in pizzas. Moreover Motivation level of staff is very high which make the organization more prosperous. They are ISO (International Standard Organization) certified. They have equipped with plenty of resources for operating different activities of the organization. They are providing free home delivery service. They have created monopoly in this sector. Another big Strength and even a Competitive Advantageis the fact that they have a full service restaurant as well as delivery services. Most of dominos competitors do not have restaurants. Because of the restaurant, Dominos can market too many different segments that other pizza chains cannot. For example, Dominos can market to families much easier than Dominos or Little Caesars. Dominos weaknesses: As far as dominos weaknesses is concerned, dominos holding a restaurant to run is also the major weakness that it has, because of it has higher overhead cost than that of competitors as competitors dont have a restaurant to deal with therefore their overhead cost is quite lower than that of Dominos. As a result of higher overhead cost dominos charge higher prices. Obviously, Dominos is not the low cost producer. As they charge higher prices so thats why they are accountable for quality pizza and good service. They are providing less range of products comparatively with high prices. They are more focused on western taste instead of Eastern. Very few outlets have dine-in facilities The menu is limited and pricey, and there are very few budget items on the menu. Opportunities: Dominos has a high potential therefore it has numerous opportunities like wise, if it come across new markets then new opportunities will be born. Considering eastern test of the people like Mc donalds, Dominos can come up with new products. Market share can be increased by bringing variety of new products. Prices can be reduced because of more dominos. Threats: Currently major threat that Dominos can face are from competitors, as their immediate competitor which is pizza hut, is working over to open their branch hastily. But competitive advantage that dominos have over pizza hut is their lower price. Evaluate dominos company strategies with other different companies: Though Dominos has flourished in expanding over continent and had observed a remarkable achievements, but in attaining to develop globally, it has been unabled to manage the domestic market with full proficiency and as a consequence , is losing grounds in the domestic market. Moreover , Dominos has mobilized the standard of pizza industry to a great extend, keeping current economic situation in mind, where rising of commodity prices and decrease in peoples purchasing power, Dominos is struggling to keep a tie between profitability as well as maintaining standards. Moreover, the increasing competition in the fast food industry adds to these cluster of challenges. The main reason for Pizza Huts has been their menu that has been constantly reformed and expanded in order to foster with the changing need and preferences of customer in different part of the world. In having understood the pulse of the customers, Pizza Hut has clearly established itself as a brand with a Britain heart and Dominos need to learn that. Benchmarking: For many years as a private company, Dominos really benchmarked against itself, without looking at the outside world. We were proud of the fact that for many years we had positive same-store sales, which is a big financial indicator of growth and success in the retail world. Well, that was the good news. The bad news was that during those years our competitors were growing at a very faster pace. Dominos were actually giving up market share. At the same time, dominos were hosting internal celebrations of the fact that against our own internal matrix dominos were doing well. Dominos not only had to look at what had been our past results and reconcile how dominos were performing against that benchmark, but also dominos needed to look at the world around us, look at our competitors, and in many instances, I really wanted us to look at the very best in class. Who is out there doing the best possible job in this particular area of business? Dominos need to find out what their results are and start to hold ourselves accountable for that particular level of performance. Dominos accept mediocrity because dominos can choose a lot of people around us who are just as mediocre as dominos are. I want to find the very, very best, and I want to benchmark against them, and I want to get as good or better. I think if I lead that expectation and I get my team and my organization to embrace it, thats how dominos were going to become world-class performers. Takeaways When organization become successful, people tend to believe that thing now dont need to improve but the fact is, things does not remain the same-it can be worst even or it can be better. At the instant companies become confident and detached at the very instant companies begin to decline. In order to have a high-performance organization you need to cultivate a culure of continuous improvement. Dont go for ordinariness, instead, analyse your competitors, set benchmark against them and attain the top-notch performance. Organisation strategy: A businesss strategy is basically arrangement of decision that a company make in order to attain its goals. A business has cluster of goals and objectives. And in order to attain those objectives businesses need to organize their business activities. For running a business, planning is essential for both current and as well future activities. Therefore, in order to attain their business objectives , organization need to comply with different strategies. In accordance with, Dominos has also adopted many strategies which help in attaining the target which are set by the main office to the local store opened at Peshawer. Changes in the external as well as internal environment has made Dominos to re consider their past strategies and has hence designed new strategies after considering the changes in the environment. Through SWOT and PEST analysis, environmental changes are scrutinized. After acknowledging all the factors Dominos has decided upon the strategies and their current strategie s are categorized into five main categories and further have sub parts. These strategies are: -Functional Strategies: These strategies are outlined to improve proficiency of business operations. They often focus on an area, such as marketing, human resources etc. All business organizations adopt strategies at functional level as once the functional objectives are achieved, corporate objectives become easy. In order to make the functional strategy efficient, Dominos has made all the functional departments co-operate with each other. Porters Five Forces analysis of market structure The competitive structure of an industry can be analysed using Porters five forces. This model attempts to analyse the attractiveness of an industry by considering five forces within a market. According to Porter (1980) the likelihood of firms making profits in a given industry depends on five factors: 1. The likelihood of new entry i.e. the extent to which barriers to entry exist. The more difficult it is for other firms to enter a market the more likely it is that existing firms can make relatively high profits. The likelihood of entering a market would be difficult if: the entry costs are high e.g. if heavy investment is required in marketing or equipment there are major advantages to firms that have been operating in the industry already in terms of their experience and understanding of how the market works (this is known as the learning effect) Government policy prevents entry or makes it more difficult; for example, protectionist measures may mean a tax is placed on foreign products or there is a limit to the number of overseas goods that can be sold. This would make it difficult for a foreign firm to enter a market the existing brands have a high level of loyalty the existing firms may react aggressively to any new entrant e.g. with a price war The existing firms have control of the supplies .e.g. entering the diamond industry might be difficult because the majority of known sdominosces of diamonds are controlled by companies such as De Beers. 2. The power of buyers. The stronger the power of buyers in an industry the more likely it is that they will be able to force down prices and reduce the profits of firms that provide the product. Buyer power will be higher if: there are a few, big buyers so each one is very important to the firm the buyers can easily switch to other providers so the provider needs to provide a high quality service at a good price The buyers are in position to take over the firm. If they have the resdominosces to buy the provider this threat can lead to a better service because they have real negotiating power 3. The power of suppliers. The stronger the power of suppliers in an industry the more difficult it is for firms within that sector to make a profit because suppliers can determine the terms and conditions on which business is conducted. Suppliers will be more powerful if: there are relatively few of them (so the buyer has few alternatives) switching to another supplier is difficult and/or expensive the supplier can threaten to buy the existing firms so is in a strong negotiating position 4. The degree of rivalry This measures the degree of competition between existing firms. The higher the degree of rivalry the more difficult it is for existing firms to generate high profits. Rivalry will be higher if: there are a large number of similar sized firms (rather than a few dominant firms) all competing with each other for customers The costs of leaving the industry are high e.g. because of high levels of investment. This means that existing firms will fight hard to survive because they cannot easily transfer their resources elsewhere The level of capacity utilisation. If there are high levels of capacity being underutilised the existing firms will be very competitive to try and win sales to boost their own demand the market is shrinking so firms are fighting for their share of falling sales there is little brand loyalty so customer are likely to switch easily betdominosen products 5. The substitute threat. This measures the ease with which buyers can switch to another product that does the same thing e.g. aluminium cans rather than glass or plastic bottles. The ease of switching depends on what costs would be involved (e.g. transferring all ydominos data to a new database system and retraining staff could be expensive) and how similar customers perceive the alternatives to be. Using Porters analysis firms are likely to generate higher returns if the industry: Is difficult to enter There is limited rivalry Buyers are relatively small Suppliers are relatively small There are few substitutes. On the other hands returns are likely to be low if: The industry is easy to enter There is a high degree of rivalry between firms within the industry Buyers are strong Suppliers are strong It is easy to switch to alternatives The implication of Porters analysis for managers is that they should examine these five factors before choosing an industry to move into. They should also consider ways of changing the five factors to make them more favourable. For example: If firms merge together this can reduce the degree of rivalry. This has happened a great deal in industries such as automobiles, pharmaceuticals and banking where firms have joined together to remove competitors if firms buy up distributors (this is called forward vertical integration) they can gain more control over buyers if firms differentiate their product perhaps by trying to generate some form of Unique Selling Proposition (USP) that makes it stand out from the competition. This lies at the heart of many marketing and brand building activities. Coca Cola, for example, has fought hard to promote itself as the real thing; everything else is just imitation! if they react aggressively to a firm that enters its market this may deter potential entrants in the future The five forces will change over time as market conditions alter. For example, more information is available nowadays to enable customers to compare offerings and prices; this gives buyers more power. The opening up of world markets (for example through the efforts of the World Trade Organisation to reduce protectionist measures that limit trade and the expansion of the European Union enabling free trade between more countries) has led to much more rivalry in markets in recent years. In North America, for example, the sales of Japanese firms such as Toyota have gradually been reducing the market share of American producers such as General Motors as consumers have more choice. Meanwhile, the success of the internet has made it easier for producers to enter many markets such as finance, book retailing and clothes retailing; the ability to start selling online has reduced a major barrier to entry which was the investment required to set up a network of shops. As ever the business world is not static and the conditions in any industry will always be changing. As this happens the various elements of the five forces are always shifting requiring established firms and potential entrants to review their strategies. Effectiveness of international strategy: It reaches geographically dispersed buyers. Dominos vision is focused on Exceptional people on a mission to be the best pizza delivery company in the world! . Dominos is committed to bringing fun and excitement to the lives of dominos customers by delivering delicious pizzas to their doorstep in 30 minutes or less and all its strategies are aimed at fulfilling this commitment towards its large and ever-growing customer base. Its all advertisement are image of core competencies. They also should have a variety of combinations of menu items which a customer can choose so that both the customer and the company can have a win-win situation. The company can have the maximum of the consumer surplus at the same time the consumer might feel that this was the best offer. From the menu card one can see the family size variants and the different pizza combinations in the same one pizza are all the different ways of pricing. The company attains the maximum profit in the meat items, so they give the selection of pizzas slices of different varieties and they are clubbed together to form a single pizza. Once the customer dines / orders @ home, normally discount coupons are given to the customer so that there is an incentive for the customer to order from Dominos . Thus customers are forced to maintain loyalty towards Dominos . Sustaining, building relationships and Exploiting Changing Conditions Over the years dominos has also developed and successfully introduced a range of products especially suited. What has also given dominos a competitive edge is that in addition to an extensive range of internationally renowned pizzas like The Italian, the proprietary Pan Pizza and Stuffed Crust, in the menu offers the option of a complete meal. It includes appetizers, a Salad Bar where the customers can make their own fresh salads, a range of soups, pastas and desserts etc. Dominos should also a community called as VIP- Members joining this club should be at no extra cost one can avail greater offers. Meanwhile Dominos are not behind Pizza Hut in introducing local tradition. Dominos believes strongly in the strategy of Think global and act local. Thus, time and again Dominos Pizza has been innovating with delicious new products such as crusts, toppings suitable to the taste buds of Consumers Firm market entry strategy: Dominos Pizza was able to gain ground by positioning Pizza as a snack and supporting it with its efficient home delivery system. For Dominos direct selling and interactive selling is not needed though they are involved in internet and cable TV promotions. Dominos always search for ways to gain efficiency by replacing one communication with others. The sustainability among communication tools explains why marketing function need to be coordinated. Growth strategies: Pizza hut targeted market defines them as a family product. This is because they dont really directly market their customers. They are target everyone whereas their competitors target a certain gender or age. But pizza hut targets a wide range of customers. This is because they want to make the most money and who blames them. They have many competitors and they are bound to try everything to cope up tops. Their competitors are everywhere. There are just a few that are main competitors and pizza hut will always try to be the best and get the most money by making their products better quality but also cheaper. They try to offer something different with their product. They offer a range of stuffed crusts to try and attract customers. They also do vegetarian options with meet free pizzas and a salad and pasta bar. Not a lot of restaurants offer a salad and a pasta bar. This is another competitive idea to attract or customers. Potential development over 10 to 20 years: senior executives at Dominos are missing a key thought process about change, growth and innovation though. They didnt understand that every product, team, organization and individual goes through a process of birth, growth and decline that is similar to the shape of an elongated S. You cant avoid this process. At the beginning of every growth curve, you make investments with little or no reward. Its only through squeezing out operational inefficiencies, gaining and or growing market share that companies recover their initial investments and grow the bottom line and pay dividends to their stakeholders. Dominos rested on the part of the S-Curve where the maximum profit are being realized without understanding that decline, death, and decreased profit arent just probable, but are inevitable. Dominos is trying to jump the curve and are at the beginning of a new S-Curve time will tell as to whether they embrace team development and leadership development, which will ultimately determine whether they grow or die. Appropriate justified recommendation for improvement, development and international : à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Increase varieties in Pizzas. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Focus on location of the outlets. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Increase the quality of Pizzas. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Make good ambiance in outlets. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Should focus more on marketing itself confidently. Conclusion: Dominos Pizza constantly strives to develop products that suit the tastes of its consumers and hence delighting them. Dominos believes strongly in the strategy of Think global and act local. Thus, time and again Dominos Pizza has been innovating with delicious new products such as crusts, toppings and flavours suitable to the taste buds of Consumers. Further, providing value for money at affordable products to the consumers has been Dominos motto. Initiatives such as Fun Meal and Pizza Mania have been extremely popular with consumers.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Essay on Film Genre

A true film genre relies on shared iconography, formalistic themes and similar narrative structures and content. ‘What genre does is recognize that the audience any one film within a context of other films, both those they have personally seen and those they have heard about or seen represented in other media outlets. †¦In general, the function of genre is to make films comprehensible and more or less familiar. (turner 97)’.Action/adventure, the Western, Gangster/Crime, Detective/Film Noir, Comedy, Science fiction/Fantasy, Horror/Monster, Suspense Thriller/Spy/Heist and many others groups are usually used for marketing in stores where films are being sold. The majority of viewers, film critics, and film producers talk about films in relation to the categories. These categories are generally called genres. ‘The word â€Å"genre† is originally French, and it simply means â€Å"kind† or â€Å"type†. It’s related to another word,  "genus†, which is used in the biological sciences to classify groups of plant and animals. A true film genre is a product of interaction between audience and the text. Therefore, all producers and audiences must have a quite good understanding and what is more important shared knowledge of genre’s characteristics. ’ For instance,’ westerns, at least the traditional ones, tend to share the same basic conflict and usually the same type of setting. All detective films share the same basic story: the uncovering of causes. Musicals share nothing more than frequent prominent interludes of music and perhaps dancing during a story. This shared knowledge, however, is not set in stone. Different people will have divergent understandings of genre. ’ According to this statement, audiences expand general ideas about any kind of genre based on going to the cinema, media coverage or advertisements and marketing. As a result of consequence, viewers have their own a nticipations about a particular genre and define films according to their expectations. ‘Genres are based on a tacit agreement among filmmakers, reviewers and audiences. What gives the films some common identity are shared genre conventions. Shared conventions are shared thematic, stylistic and narrative structures. Although not every single film demonstrate all of the conventions, at least some of them are shown in a film. This helps the film critics to define whether this film fall into a particular group of films – genre. Moreover, critical analysis of any film can take place only if conventions are considered. These conventions are also called â€Å"repertoire of elements†. In this document shared genre conventions in terms of horror will be discussed.The horror genre has become much more popular nowadays than ever before. ‘If its beginnings were rooted in literature – Mary Shelley’s â€Å"Frankenstein† (1818) and Bram Stokerâ€℠¢s â€Å"Dracula† (1897) are the titles that seem to spring to everyone’s mind – we also know that stories have always been told about ghosts, monsters, witches and the dark. ’ There are a lot of reasons why this genre is so popular today. However, it is still really difficult to clarify why it is so engaging for a great number of people regardless of its unreality. The genre of ‘Horror’ has been around since the late 1800’s giving it decades to develop and change. ’ ‘From the 1930s to the 1970s, most horror films were considered very much the poor brethren of the film world. ’ The reason was that horror films were made on a low budget. Furthermore, the target audience was young people who went to the cinemas late nights to have fun and scream their way. The great example was ‘the film â€Å"Matinee† (directed by Joe Dante, 1993)’ which demonstrates that horror films were watched mostly by young people at that time.However, there were such films like â€Å"Psycho† (1960) and â€Å"The Birds† (1963) by Alfred Hitchcock which managed to change perspective of horror films in a better way. Since audiences appreciate thrill and excitement they experience during watching horror movies they expect new stories and plots. Consequently, film producers had to come up with new ideas and more challenging plots to meet the audience’s expectations and wishes. One of the genre conventions is iconography, which ‘derives from art history, where it only referred to visual signs. The context in which an object or sound is used is crucial in defining its meaning.For example, a crucifix is readily associated with the church as a symbol of Christ`s resurrection, and is not simply an example of horror iconography. ’ In terms of a horror film a symbol of Christ would represent not only the Christ but the weapon against the evil. Another example could be a knife whi ch is used to kill somebody rather than in comedy it is used for cutting things. In order to identify that the genre of a film is horror, such visual signs like red and black colors, blue filters in films are used. The use of blue filter is called digital color correction.It was hard and expensive to achieve this correction previously. However, since computer technologies have developed a lot, much more powerful and exciting effects can be achieved by simply editing a film sequence in different computer software nowadays. Moreover, the mise- enscene of horror films also show that this film is horror film with the help of using such things like knives, guns, axes and many others. Another use of iconography is the setting. In horror films the setting is usually abandoned, isolated from people, the houses generally hide scaring past.The majority of scenes are filmed in night time but the plot can be developed during daytime as well. There are some sub-genres of horror films. Therefore, the iconography can slightly vary. For instance, paranormal horror includes such symbols like unusual things happening or really dark scenes. â€Å"Slasher† horror shows masks, screaming victims. Another thing to consider is camera work in horror films. Generally, different and weird angles of camera are used. In order to frighten and express fear for the viewers extreme close ups and point of view shots take place during film.There are many other types of iconography like the use of tense sounds and music which are generally linked with a horror genre. Therefore, aural signs should be also discussed when talking about iconography of films. ‘â€Å"One should not tell stories as straight-line narratives. There are so many other possibilities, and film would only enrich them. † Peter Greenaway’. While researching horror films, another very important genre convention is narrative structure. ‘Narrative piece events together in a linear fashion that clea rly shows the audience the reasons for, and the consequences of character behavior.The logic of cause and effect ties together character traits, goals, obstacles, and actions. ’ . The main intention of narrative structure is to tell the story. Sometimes it is conceptual, sometimes real. For instance, the purpose of film can involve saving the world or finding a love. ‘Russian narrative theorist Tzvetlan Todorov argued that all narratives involve the disruption of a stable situation, which makes restoration of equilibrium an important goal. ’ First of all, with the help of disruption people can identify the genre of a film easily. For instance, f there is a drugs baron killing someone and trying to escape, perhaps the genre is gangster or thriller; some kind of dilemma in a family can be set in a film which genre is likely to be melodrama. Basically, the equilibrium Todorov was talking about is that generally characters come to this point of equilibrium only in th e end of film after some kind of disruption: be it reconsidering goals or dealing with challenges. The great examples of films showing equilibrium are â€Å"slasher† films. Another part of narrative structure focuses on character types. There are different types of them which are strongly associated with the genre.For example, the most expected character of horror films is monster. This character is extremely important in horror genre as to realize fear and revulsion. Since there are different types of horror films, monsters also vary. Sometimes, they represent ghosts which lead and frighten other characters. In some films, monsters are creatures that are half human half animal being. However, monster does not necessarily have to appear as a monster because it simply means phenomena or â€Å"bad thing† which is scaring. Almost every horror film has a Madonna as well. She is generally an attractive woman who is suffering because of a monster.Madonna represents an ideal woman while a whore is completely opposite character that represents the worst things of women. ‘A standard narrative convention of horror film is that the exposition portrays a character or small group of characters venturing into a strange and ultimately threatening setting. Jonathan Harker (Alexander Granach) goes into the Carpathian Mountains to make a business deal with the mysterios Count Orlock in â€Å"Nosferatu†. ’ Genres are usually associated with particular themes. For instance,’ the wilderness versus civilization opposition in Westerns, and the human: non- human opposition in SF’.In the beginning horror films were based on literature. â€Å"Dracula† was one of them. Since horror genre was developing during the time, new ideas such as aliens started to appear. During the 80’s the most popular idea in horror genre was â€Å"slashers† which was mentioned before in this document. The 80’s became some kind of new era for the horror genre as they started working closely on special effects to provide audience with more fear. †The thing† (1982) and â€Å"The thing† (2011) is an example that shows how special effects have changed since 1982. The first version is full of makeup effects and costumes.There is a big difference compared to the latest version in terms of using computer generated imagery for gaining special effects and digital animation. With this progression which influenced the viewers in terms of watching horror films the popularity of horror films increased a lot. ’ During the early 20th  century psychological thrillers were introduced into the horror genre and changed the genre completely, sparking new ideas, which have grown and developed into the main theme and idea we have today. ’ Therefore, horror films expand themes about religion or unnatural things nowadays.One of the examples of today’s horror films based on these themes is  "Paranormal activity†. ‘It seems likely that a genre never dies. It may pass out of fashion for a time, only to return in updated garb. A genre may change by mixing its conventions with those of another genre. ’ Therefore, sometimes it is difficult to identify what is the genre of a particular film. Film producers are forced to take such actions like mixing some genres in order to create a new so called â€Å"hybrid† genre. The reason for this is to renew a genre by adding some conventions from another genre so that to surprise the audience and to keep them interested. The horror story [†¦] is part of a long process by which people have tried to come to terms with and find adequate descriptions and symbols for deeply rooted, primitive and powerful forces, energies and fears which are related to death, afterlife, punishment, darkness, evil, violence and destruction. † – J. A. Cuddon. According to Cuddon words, the horror film is only a part of a process. However, I do not think so because if something is a process then it has to end at some point and horror genre will never die. I think that is because the majority of people are curious about the things that are scaring or forbidden.Curiosity has to be sated somehow and horror films help to sort it out. While watching horror films or reading horror books our mind experience feeling of being scared. Stephen King told once â€Å"We have to keep the ‘gators fed†. He meant that people would find another more dangerous way to sate their curiosity if horror genre would not exist. Consequently, this kind of genre will not die. Taking into account all above mentioned, I can come to the conclusion that every genre shares its own iconography, similar narrative structures and themes.The main reason for that is to make every genre identifying and understandable. Audience chooses films to watch normally for entertainment so genre could be vital factor in this as it he lps in choosing and understanding films. Bibliography Pramaggiore, Maria, and Wallis, Tom. Film: A Critical Introduction. Laurence King Publishing, 2005. Bordwell, David and Thompson, Kristin, Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill, 2010. Lacey, Nick, Introduction to Film. London: Palgrave, 2005. Dougherty, Rachel. â€Å"Genre & Narrative in Horror Film†¦Ã¢â‚¬  27 September 2012. 3 March 2013. http://racheldoughertyfilm. blogspot. co. uk/2012/09/genre-narrative-in-horror-film. html. Nelmes, Jill, An Introduction to Film Studies. Routledge, 2003. Rayner, Philip, Wall, Peter, and Kruger, Stephen. â€Å"AS Media Studies: The Essential Introduction†. Routledge, 2001. ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 310 [ 3 ]. Bordwell, D. , Thompson, K. (2010), Film Art An Introduction, p. 328 [ 4 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 310 [ 5 ].Lacey, N. (2005), Introduction To Film, p. 46 [ 6 ]. Bordwell, D. , Thompson, K. (2010), Film Art An Introduction, p. 330 [ 7 ]. Rayner, P, Wall, P. , Kruger, S. (2001), AS Media Studies: The Essential Introduction, p. 292 [ 8 ]. http://racheldoughertyfilm. blogspot. co. uk/2012/09/genre-narrative-in-horror-f ilm. html [ 9 ]. Rayner, P, Wall, P. , Kruger, S. (2001), AS Media Studies: The Essential Introduction, p. 296 [ 10 ]. Rayner, P, Wall, P. , Kruger, S. (2001), AS Media Studies: The Essential Introduction, p. 296 [ 11 ]. Lacey, N. (2005), Introduction To Film, p. 8 [ 12 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 32 [ 13 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 33 [ 14 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 33 [ 15 ]. Wallis, T. , Pramaggiore, M. , (2005), Film: A Critical Introduction, p. 357 [ 16 ]. Lacey , N. (2005), Introduction To Film,, page 53 [ 17 ]. http://racheldoughertyfilm. blogspot. co. uk/2012/09/genre-narrative-in-horror-film. html [ 18 ]. Bordwell, D. , Thompson, K. (2010), Film Art An Introduction, page 335

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Obesity has Taken Over Our Children - 881 Words

Childhood Obesity has taken over the lives of American children in the United States. Presently, 23 million children and teens in the United States are obese (CDC 2014). This epidemic affects children of all ages and mostly minority children at a seemingly unstoppable rate. For instance, 18 percent of American children age 6 to 11 and teens ages 12 to 19 are obese (Spradlin 2012). When examining ethnicity, Caucasian American children 28.2 percent is far lower percentage when compared to that of the 33.1 percent of African American children and 44.7 percent of Hispanic children (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, Flegal 2014). Childhood obesity is caused by the consumption of unhealthy food and beverages in large portions with the absence of daily physical activity; allowing left over energy to become fat and eventually lead to obesity. The factors that are the major reasons why childhood obesity is a continuous prevalent issue are environment and behavioral systems. 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